Thursday, 26 February 2015

5.3 Medicines

Traditional medicine
■ Type of traditional medicines

Obtained from animals, plants and minerals without chemically processed.

The effectiveness depends on belief and experiences.

The knowledges are just passed from one generation to the next generation.
■ Example of traditional medicine

Source of traditional medicine Treatment method and uses
Aloe vera
Using its leaves to treat skin wounds and diseases
Garlic
Contains antibiotic properties that can treat high blood pressure, prevent cold and asthma.
Ginger
Using its leaves and rhizomes to prevent cold and remove stomach wind.
Ginseng
Using its root to make drinks so as to strengthen the body
Mint
Using its leaves to cure sore throats.
Pegaga
Using its leaves to treat depression and for longevity.
■ This video contains information regarding traditional medicine.


Types of modern medicine and their uses
■ Modern medicine

A substance that is chemically produced

Can be provided in various forms such as pills, capsules, paste, suspension and solution

Can be divided into :
Analgesics
Antibiotics
Psychotherapeutic drugs
■ This video contains information regarding analgesics.


Modern medicine-analgesics
■ Analgesics

Used to relieve pain.

Types of analgesics:
opiates that used to relieve internal pain.
non-opiates that used to relieve muscular and skeletal pains.
■ Example of analgesics:

Aspirin
To treat fever, relief pain such as headache, toothache and arthritic pain, to reduce inflammation and to reduce the ability of blood to clot.
Not suitable for pregnant mothers and children who have flu .

Paracetamol
To relieve mild to moderate pain such as headache, muscle and joint pains, period pain and fever.
It is not a very effective anti-inflammatory agent.
Can be given to children as it does not irritate the stomach.

Codeine
It is a stronger analgesic used in headache tablets and cough medicines.
It may cause drowsiness after taken.
Can be extracted from opium or synthesised from morphine.
■ Preparation of aspirin

Can be prepared by adding salicylic acid into ethanoic anhydride.
■ The video below shows the white crystals of aspirin are formed from the reaction between salicylic acid and ethanoic anhydride.


Modern medicine-antibiotic
■ Antibiotic

Used to kill or prevent the growth of bacteria.

Obtained from living organisms such as fungi and bacteria.
■ Example of antibiotic :

Penicillin
Extracted from fungus Penicillium notatum
A powerful antibiotic used to treat diseases caused by bacterial infections :
○ gonorrhea
○ syphilis
○ syphilis
○ pneumonia
○ meningitis

Streptomycin
Produced by soil bacteria of the genus Streptomyces
Used to treat :
○ tuberculosis
○ urinary infection
○ TB
○ pneumonia
■ This video contains information regarding antibiotic.


Modern medicine-psychotherapeutic drugs
■ Psychotherapeutic drugs

Used to treat some psychiatric and neurological problems

Psychotherapeutic drugs are classified into:
Stimulants
Antidepressant
Antipsychotic
■ Stimulants

Stimulates the central nervous system.

Speed up metabolic rate to make a person more active.

Increase pulse rate and blood pressure.

High doses or excessive use may cause sleeplessness, anxiety, hallucination or severe depression.
■ Example of stimulants:

Amphetamine
A strong and powerful synthetic stimulant that stimulates the central nervous system (nerves and brain).
Symptoms of an amphetamine overdose include restlessness, tremor, rapid breathing, confusion, hallucinations.

Cocaine
It is applied to certain areas of the body (for example, the nose, mouth, or throat) to cause loss of feeling or numbness.
May cause mental and physical problems.
■ Antidepressants

Used to reduce depression in depressed patients

Used to treat a psychotic diseases such as anxiety disorders, eating disorders, chronic pain and abnormal thoughts on killing himself.
■ Example of antidepressant drugs:

Barbiturates
It is used to sedate, calm or relax an individual.
It is used in sleeping pills to cure people who suffer insomnia.
Over dosage may cause death.

Tranquiliser
Used to calm a person reduce tension, anxiety and fear.
■ Antipsychotics

Used to treat psychiatric illness such as schizophrenia and mood disorder

Used to treat a patient that not aware of reality, auditory hallucinations (schizophrenia), or become angry easily.

Common antipsychotic medicines are chlorpromazine, reserpine, butyrophenones and clozapine.
■ This video contains information regarding psychotherapeutic drugs


Modern medicine-other medicine
■ Hormones and steroids

Crucial substances for the proper function of the body.

Produced and secreted into the bloodstream by endocrine glands in the body.
■ Example:

Insulin
A hormone produced from cells of the pancreas
Regulates the amount of sugar in the blood
Lack of insulin in the blood can cause diabetes mellitus

Cortisone
A steroid hormone released by the adrenal gland in response to stress.
Used to treat a variety of skin problems, asthma and arthritis.
■ This video contains information regarding other categories of modern medicine.


The side effects of medicine
■ Side Effects of Medicine

Patient should seek medical advice from a doctor to avoid any side effects

The table below shows the side effects of some medicines
Medicine Side effects
Aspirin Can cause bleeding and ulcers in the stomach and intestinal wall
Can cause unconsciousness
Antipsychotic drug May cause addiction
Can cause headache, confusion and a high rate of heart beat
Amphetamine May cause addiction
Can cause aggressiveness and hallucination
May develop sleeplessness
Barbiturate May cause addiction
Can cause death if overdose
Penicillin Can cause allergic reactions
May cause coma
■ This video contains information regarding the side effects of medicine.

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