Monday, 29 December 2014

1.2 Scientific Method

Scientific Investigation Methods
■ Scientific investigation methods
 ► Systematic method that performed following rules and scientific principles to obtain scientific knowledge.
■ Steps of Scientific investigation method:
 ► This video contains information about steps of scientific investigation method:

 1 Making observation Gathering information, about a phenomenon, using our five senses. 2 Making inference Making early conclusion, or tentative explanation, about the phenomenon, based on the observation. 3 Identify problem Problem is identified by asking question, based on the inference made. 4 Making hypothesis Making a general statement on the relationship between a manipulated variable and a responding variable in order to explain the question asked. 5 Identifying variables Identifying the manipulated, responding and fixed variables of an experiment to test the hypothesis made. 6 Controlling variables Deciding how to manipulate the chosen variable, what to measure and how to keep the fixed variables constant. 7 Planning an experiment List everything needed to complete the experiment. Describe details steps of investigations, how to collect the data. 8 Collecting data Making observations or measurement and then recording the data systematically. 9 Interpreting data Organising and analysing data. Calculations, graph or charts may be drawn to look for any relationship between the variables. 10 Making conclusion Forming a statement on the outcome of an investigation that sums up what happened in the experiment, whether the hypothesis was accepted or rejected. 11 Writing report A complete report is written according to the format of the scientific investigation method.
■ The animation below shows the items to be included in a scientific investigation report.

 Laboratory Activity 1.2.1: Scientific Investigation method

Worked-example 1.2(a)
Choose true [✔] or false [✘] for the statement given.
Statement
Scientific investigation is done through a series of systematic steps called scientific methods.
All scientific investigations conducted must involve numerical data.
All hypothesis can be proven true.
An inference is the initial conclusion that is made based on the beginning observation.
Variables that are manipulated are variables that are used to test the hypothesis.

Worked-example 1.2(b)
Match the following scientific investigation steps based on the explanation given.
Explanation Scientific investigation method
A process of forming an initial logical conclusion, which may or may not be true, to explain a process or observation. Making inference
A process of making a general statement that states the correlation between the responding variable and the manipulated variable. Making hypothesis
A step in a scientific investigation in which information is presented in a more meaningful way. Analizing data
Factors or conditions which influence other factors in an investigation. Variables

Worked-example 1.2(c)
For rusting to take place, air and water must be present. A students carry out an experiment to find out whether air is required for an iron nail to rust. Determine the variable involved in this experiment.
Variables Types of variable
The length of iron nail Constant variable
Presence or absence of air Manipulated variable
Rusting of iron nail Responding variable